With a 35mm film camera:

  • you only get so many shots depending on the film and camera,
  • it does not show you the photo you have just taken like on a digital camera,
  • for coloured film, you CAN NOT USE black and white darkroom chemicals!!
  • to open the camera, there is a manual winder to release the spring so you can get to the film,
  • when taking a photo, the camera needs to be set at the same speed as your film.
  • everything should be set to manual when using the camera. If not then you’re pretty much cheating in photography,
  • in the camera there are three lights. There is a red negative, red positive and a green light. This is to tell you if you have the right aperture.




For example, if I wanted all three items in focus in the same image then I would use aperture F8, F11, F16, F22.

If I wanted just the tree close to the camera in focus then I would use an aperture of F3.5.

The higher you go in the ‘F’ number, the less light you are allowing to get to your film.

Any movement on a slow shutter speed will make the image come out blurry.

  • At F3.5 – not a lot in focus but lots of light.
  • At F22 – lots of focus but not a lot of light.


How to develop your film:

1st tray, developer – Ilford Multigrade

  • always measured 1:9
  • 100ml developer
  • 900ml water

2nd tray, stopper – just water most of the time,

3rd tray, fixer – Rapid Fixer

  • always measured 1:4
  • 100ml rapid fixer
  • 400ml water
  • must be kept at 20 degrees centigrade

4th tray, wash – water flowing through tap constantly


Modern Film Photography:

  • the 35mm film is substrate coated and has light sensitive chemicals.
  • 35mm film is the most common format used by photographers.
  • the focus ring is turned on the lens.


Shutter Speed – controls how long film or your cameras sensor is exposed for.

Aperture – is the diameter of the lens opening.

  • large aperture = more light, but shallow depth of field.
  • small aperture = less light, but large depth of field.


ISO 100 – low sensitivity to light, good for bright conditions, static scenes. Has a wide aperture but a slow shutter.

ISO 1600 – high sensitivity to light, good for low light, dynamic scenes. Has a small aperture but a fast shutter.


Camera Modes:

P: Program Mode – camera chooses shutter speed and aperture.

S: Shutter Priority – user sets shutter speed, camera chooses the aperture.

A: Aperture Priority – user sets aperture, camera chooses the shutter speed.

M: Manual Mode – user sets both the shutter speed and aperture.


Exposure – the amount of light/shadow in an image.

Shutter – opens and closes to allow light in.

ISO – light sensitivity.


Exposure = Correct Aperture + Correct ISO + Correct Shutter Speed

  • In my college course, I have used a 125 ISO and because we were taking still images only, we had our shutter speed set to 125th of a second.


Developing my film:

Step 1: Developer

  • 320ml developer
  • 5 mins
  • shake and tap to agitate and to release air bubbles
  • 5 seconds for every 30 seconds
  • pour developer down the sink

Step 2: Stop Bath

  • stop bath is always in the red bucket
  • 320ml water
  • 30 seconds
  • pour back into tub

Step 3: Fix Bath

  • 320ml of fixer
  • 5 mins
  • 5 seconds for every 30 seconds
  • pour back into green tub
  • then 20 mins in the wash bath (just water)